1. The nurse practicing in a maternity setting recognizes that the post mature fetus is at risk due to:
A) Excessive fetal weight
B) Low blood sugar levels
C) Depletion of subcutaneous fat
D) Progressive placental insufficiency
The correct answer is D: Progressive placental insufficiency
The placenta functions less efficiently as pregnancy continues beyond 42 weeks. Immediate and long term effects may be related to hypoxia
2. Which individual is at greatest risk for developing hypertension?
A) 45 year-old African American attorney
B) 60 year-old Asian American shop owner
C) 40 year-old Caucasian nurse
D) 55 year-old Hispanic teacher
The correct answer is A: 45 year-old African American attorney
The incidence of hypertension is greater among African Americans than other groups in the US. The incidence among the Hispanic population is rising.
3. At a community health fair the blood pressure of a 62 year-old client is 160/96. The client states “My blood pressure is usually much lower.” The nurse should tell the client to
A) go get a blood pressure check within the next 48 to 72 hours
B) check blood pressure again in 2 months
C) see the health care provider immediately
D) visit the health care provider within 1 week for a BP check
The correct answer is A: go get a blood pressure check within the next 48 to 72 hours
The blood pressure reading is moderately high with the need to have it rechecked in a few days. The client states it is ‘usually much lower.’ Thus a concern exists for complications such as stroke. However immediate check by the provider of care is not warranted. Waiting 2 months or a week for follow-up is too long.
4. During an assessment of a client with cardiomyopathy, the nurse finds that the systolic blood pressure has decreased from 145 to 110 mm Hg and the heart rate has risen from 72 to 96 beats per minute and the client complains of periodic dizzy spells. The nurse instructs the client to
A) Increase fluids that are high in protein
B) Restrict fluids
C) Force fluids and reassess blood pressure
D) Limit fluids to non-caffeine beverages
The correct answer is C: Force fluids and reassess blood pressure
Postural hypotension, a decrease in systolic blood pressure of more than 15 mm Hg and an increase in heart rate of more than 15 percent usually accompanied by dizziness indicates volume depletion, inadequate vasoconstrictor mechanisms, and autonomic insufficiency.
5. A client has been taking furosemide (Lasix) for the past week. The nurse recognizes which finding may indicate the client is experiencing a negative side effect from the medication?
A) Weight gain of 5 pounds
B) Edema of the ankles
C) Gastric irritability
D) Decreased appetite
The correct answer is D: Decreased appetite
Lasix causes a loss of potassium if a supplement is not taken. Signs and symptoms of hypokalemia include anorexia, fatigue, nausea, decreased GI motility, muscle weakness, dysrhythmias.
6. The nurse anticipates that for a family who practices Chinese medicine the priority goal would be to
A) Achieve harmony
B) Maintain a balance of energy
C) Respect life
D) Restore yin and yang
The correct answer is D: Restore yin and yang
For followers of Chinese medicine, health is maintained through balance between the forces of yin and yang
7. A child who has recently been diagnosed with cystic fibrosis is in a pediatric clinic where a nurse is performing an assessment. Which later finding of this disease would the nurse not expect to see at this time?
A) Positive sweat test
B) Bulky greasy stools
C) Moist, productive cough
D) Meconium ileus
The correct answer is C: Moist Productive cough
Option c is a later sign. Noisy respirations and a dry non-productive cough are commonly the first of the respiratory signs to appear in a newly diagnosed client with cystic fibrosis (CF). The other options are the earliest findings. CF is an inherited (genetic) condition affecting the cells that produce mucus, sweat, saliva and digestive juices. Normally, these secretions are thin and slippery, but in CF, a defective gene causes the secretions to become thick and sticky. Instead of acting as a lubricant, the secretions plug up tubes, ducts and passageways, especially in the pancreas and lungs. Respiratory failure is the most dangerous consequence of CF.
8. During the evaluation of the quality of home care for a client with Alzheimer's disease, the priority for the nurse is to reinforce which statement by a family member?
A) At least 2 full meals a day is eaten.
B) We go to a group discussion every week at our community center.
C) We have safety bars installed in the bathroom and have 24 hour alarms on the doors.
D) The medication is not a problem to have it taken 3 times a day.
The correct answer is C: We have safety bars installed in the bathroom and have 24 hour alarms on the doors.
Ensuring safety of the client with increasing memory loss is a priority of home care. Note all options are correct statements. However, safety is most important to reinforce.
9. The nurse is speaking at a community meeting about personal responsibility for health promotion. A participant asks about chiropractic treatment for illnesses. What should be the focus of the nurse’s response?
A) Electrical energy fields
B) Spinal column manipulation
C) Mind-body balance
D) Exercise of joints
The correct answer is B: Spinal column manipulation
The theory underlying chiropractic is that interference with transmission of mental impulses between the brain and body organs produces diseases. Such interference is caused by misalignment of the vertebrae. Manipulation reduces the subluxation.
10. The nurse is performing a neurological assessment on a client post right CVA. Which finding, if observed by the nurse, would warrant immediate attention?
A) Decrease in level of consciousness
B) Loss of bladder control
C) Altered sensation to stimuli
D) Emotional lability
The correct answer is A: Decrease in level of consciousness
A further decrease in the level of consciousness would be indicative of a further progression of the CVA.
11. The home health nurse visits a male client to provide wound care and finds the client lethargic and confused. His wife states he fell down the stairs 2 hours ago. The nurse should
A) Place a call to the client's health care provider for instructions
B) Send him to the emergency room for evaluation
C) Reassure the client's wife that the symptoms are transient
D) Instruct the client's wife to call the doctor if his symptoms become worse
The correct answer is B: Send him to the emergency room for evaluation
This client requires immediate evaluation. A delay in treatment could result in further deterioration and harm. Home care nurses must prioritize interventions based on assessment findings that are in the client''s best interest.
12. A 3 year-old child comes to the pediatric clinic after the sudden onset of findings that include irritability, thick muffled voice, croaking on inspiration, hot to touch, sit leaning forward, tongue protruding, drooling and suprasternal retractions. What should the nurse do first?
A) Prepare the child for x-ray of upper airways
B) Examine the child's throat
C) Collect a sputum specimen
D) Notify the healthcare provider of the child's status
The correct answer is D: Notify the health care provider of the child''s status
These findings suggest a medical emergency and may be due to epiglottises. Any child with an acute onset of an inflammatory response in the mouth and throat should receive immediate attention in a facility equipped to perform intubation or a tracheostomy in the event of further or complete obstruction.
13. A client with multiple sclerosis plans to begin an exercise program. In addition to discussing the benefits of regular exercise, the nurse should caution the client to avoid activities which
A) Increase the heart rate
B) Lead to dehydration
C) Are considered aerobic
D) May be competitive
The correct answer is B: Lead to dehydration
The client must take in adequate fluids before and during exercise periods.
14. A nurse enters a client's room to discover that the client has no pulse or respirations. After calling for help, the first action the nurse should take is
A) Start a peripheral IV
B) Initiate closed-chest massage
C) Establish an airway
D) Obtain the crash cart
The correct answer is C: Establish an airway
Establishing an airway is always the primary objective in a cardiopulmonary arrest.
15. When teaching a client with coronary artery disease about nutrition, the nurse should emphasize
A) Eating 3 balanced meals a day
B) Adding complex carbohydrates
C) Avoiding very heavy meals
D) Limiting sodium to 7 gms per day
The correct answer is C: Avoiding very heavy meals
Eating large, heavy meals can pull blood away from the heart for digestion and is dangerous for the client with coronary artery disease.
16. While planning care for a toddler, the nurse teaches the parents about the expected developmental changes for this age. Which statement by the mother shows that she understands the child's developmental needs?
A) "I want to protect my child from any falls."
B) "I will set limits on exploring the house."
C) "I understand the need to use those new skills."
D) "I intend to keep control over our child."
The correct answer is C: "I understand the need to use those new skills."
Erikson describes the stage of the toddler as being the time when there is normally an increase in autonomy. The child needs to use motor skills to explore the environment.
17. Which complication of cardiac catheterization should the nurse monitor for in the initial 24 hours after the procedure?
A) angina at rest
B) thrombus formation
D) falling blood pressure
The correct answer is B: thrombus formation
Thrombus formation in the coronary arteries is a potential problem in the initial 24 hours after a cardiac catheterization. A falling BP occurs along with hemorrhage of the insertion site which is associated with the first 12 hours after the procedure.
18. The nurse is caring for a client who had a total hip replacement 4 days ago. Which assessment requires the nurse’s immediate attention?
A) I have bad muscle spasms in my lower leg of the affected extremity.
B) "I just can't 'catch my breath' over the past few minutes and I think I am in grave danger."
C) "I have to use the bedpan to pass my water at least every 1 to 2 hours."
D) "It seems that the pain medication is not working as well today."
The correct answer is B: "I just can''t ''catch my breath'' over the past few minutes and I think I am in grave danger."
The nurse would be concerned about all of these comments. However the most life threatening is option B. Clients who have had hip or knee surgery are at greatest risk for development of post operative pulmonary embolism. Sudden dyspnea and tachycardia are classic findings of pulmonary embolism. Muscle spasms do not require immediate attention. Option C may indicate a urinary tract infection. And option D requires further investigation and is not life threatening.
19. In children suspected to have a diagnosis of diabetes, which one of the following complaints would be most likely to prompt parents to take their school age child for evaluation?
C) Bed wetting
D) Weight loss
The correct answer is C: Bed wetting
In children, fatigue and bed wetting are the chief complaints that prompt parents to take their child for evaluation. Bed wetting in a school age child is readily detected by the parents.
20. The nurse is giving discharge teaching to a client 7 days post myocardial infarction. He asks the nurse why he must wait 6 weeks before having sexual intercourse. What is the best response by the nurse to this question?
A) "You need to regain your strength before attempting such exertion."
B) "When you can climb 2 flights of stairs without problems, it is generally safe."
C) "Have a glass of wine to relax you, then you can try to have sex."
D) "If you can maintain an active walking program, you will have less risk."
The correct answer is B: "When you can climb 2 flights of stairs without problems, it is generally safe."
There is a risk of cardiac rupture at the point of the myocardial infarction for about 6 weeks. Scar tissue should form about that time. Waiting until the client can tolerate climbing stairs is the usual advice given by health care providers.