Tuesday, September 14, 2010


Contracts – meeting if the minds between two persons whereby one binds himself, with respect to the other, to give something or to render some services (Art. 1305, CC)

Characteristics of contracts:
1.      Obligatory - has force of law between parties
2.      Autonomy - may establish agreement not contrary to law, morals good order, public order, public policy
3.      Mutuality - binding on both parties
4.      Relativity - takes effect between parties, their assigns & heirs

1.      Negotiation - from indicate interest to time contract in concluded
2.      Perfection - birth; meeting of the mind on object and cause
3.      Consummation – death; performance of respective commitments

1.      Express - formal agreement whether written or verbal
2.      Implied - presumed or inferred from acts
ü Duo ut des - i give that you give
ü Duo ut facias - i give, you do
ü Facio ut des - i do, you give
ü Facio ut facias - i do, you do
3.      Formal - required to be in writing by some special laws
4.      Informal - is not required to be in writing; intention is based on written document, correspondence or oral/written agreement
5.      Void or inexistent
ü object or purpose is contrary to law...
ü simulated or fictitious
ü object did not exist
ü object beyond commerce of man
ü performance of an impossible service
ü object cannot be determined with certainty
ü expressly prohibited or declared by law as void, invalid, ineffective
ü direct result of an illegal contract
6.      voidable - can be annulled or voided
ü one party is incapable of giving consent
ü consent is vitiated by mistake, violence, intimidation, undue influence, fraud

Elements of validity
1.      Consent
a.      Legal age
b.      Sound mind
c.      Not under the influence of intoxicating drugs
d.      Not suffering from mental disability

2.      Object or subject matter
a.      Not outside commerce of man including future things
b.      Rights which are not  intransmissible
c.      Future inheritance in cases expressly specified by law
d.      All services which are not contrary to law

3.      Cause - consideration, material, cause, reason, motive, price or impelling influence

Breach of contract (culpa contractual) - failure to perform an agreement whether express or implied
         1. Prevention of performance
         2. Failure because of inconvenience or difficulty
         3. Failure of cooperation
         4. Abandonment of duty
         5. Substitution of performance
         6. Failure to use due care
ü Culpa aquilina (quasi delict) – no contract but the nurse is still liable

Legal excuses
         1. Discovery of material misrepresentation
         2. Where performance is illegal
         3. Illness or force majeure
         4. Death of patient or nurse
         5. Insufficient contract


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