SYNTHESIS OF THE DISEASE (hypertension)
Factors that predisposed the client to having hypertension includes age in which 30-50 years old are at high risks, being a male is also a risk according to statistics. Smoking which has a vasoconstrictive effect secondary to nicotine content of cigarette played a significant role in the pathogenesis of Hypertension. Likewise, excess alcohol consumption may also increase client’s risks.
Nicotine caused vasoconstriction and consequently narrowing of the lumen of the blood vessels. These both increases the peripheral resistance which increases arterial blood pressure and decreased blood flow which deprived O2 to muscle cells causing muscle weakness and to brain cells which can cause disorientation and irritability.
SYNTHESIS OF THE DISEASE (electrolyte imbalance)
Factors that predisposed the client to having electrolyte imbalances include poor intake, GI losses (vomiting), excessive perspiration and chronic alcoholism. These factors caused decreased Sodium in extracellular spaces leading to osmotic shift of water. Osmosis can in turn result to increased intracellular edema. The most sensitive cells are the neurologic cells in the brain. Increased in the volume of these cells causes increased ICP which resulted to headache and seizure.
On the other hand, when there is decreased potassium in extracellular spaces due to the above factors, there will be a decreased nerve conduction and muscle contraction. This will lead to symptoms such as disorientation and muscle weakness respectively. Slowed smooth muscle contraction is also the reason for nausea and vomiting.